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Thoughts on ’10 Ragas To a Disco Beat’

Last week, some friends of mine in New York and London — friends with very good taste in electronic music — told me I absolutely had to listen to 10 Ragas to a Disco Beat, a new reissue on the Dutch label Bombay Connection. The word going around the Internet is that this album, full of 808-driven beats and TB-303 squelches, was recorded by a Sikh fellow by the name of Charanjit Singh in India in 1982 — predating the Chicago acid house revolution of the mid-1980s. To put the year 1982 in perspective, the Detroit techno godfathers Cybotron released “Alleys of Your Mind,” their first single, just one year before, in ’81. (In 1982, they would release “Cosmic Cars,” followed by “Clear” in 1983.) 1982 was also the year that MIDI, the “musical instrument digital interface,” was introduced — but it wouldn’t be until 1983 that the MIDI was actually being used; the first synths to utilize MIDI were the Prophet 600 and the Roland JX3P, both in ’83. Electronic music as we know it now had some way to go.

Here’s the deluxe new double-LP reissue:

The album — stripped-down, instrumental electronic arrangements of traditional Indian ragas — is fantastic. ‘Disco beat’ is a bit of a misnomer. The disco on display here is minimal, skeletal Moroder-style disco; arpeggiated basslines abound, and the tracks run at a brisk pace. Most of the ragas here feel like they clock in at around 130 bpm. This is techno speed.

Not much information exists on Mr. Singh. Some people surmised that this album was an elaborate hoax — an invention of the Aphex Twin, perhaps. But the more I dug into the story, the more I realized that it was all true. The album was recorded in 1982, and released on EMI India in 1983; Mr. Singh was a Bollywood session musician who had worked on several albums in the 1970s. The original LP was called Synthesizing: Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat, and it looked like this:

We know that Mr. Singh favored a panoply of interesting instrumentation throughout his career — steel guitars, Farfisas, electric violins, Transicord electric accordions, and so on — and later, the Jupiter-8, TB-303, and TR-808. He released an album of his instrumental music that looked like this. Check out this ace album cover:

Drew Daniel of Matmos had tipped off readers to Synthesizing a few years back, in a bit piece buried in a Pitchfork feature in 2006. “Reissue labels take note,” Drew wrote, “this thing is ready to take a cosmic disco dancefloor to a higher plane.” The Sublime Frequencies label was also hip to Mr. Singh, releasing some of his steel guitar work a couple of years ago, on this rather garish-looking album:

Here’s the tracklisting for 10 Ragas to a Disco Beat:

01 Raga Bhairav 04:56
02 Raga Lalit 04:52
03 Raga Bhupali 04:50
04 Raga Todi 04:49
05 Raga Madhuvanti 04:56
06 Raga Megh Malhar 04:58
07 Raga Yaman 05:03
08 Raga Kalavati 05:05
09 Raga Malkauns 04:59
10 Raga Bairagi 05:07

“Raga Bhairav,” the first track, starts quickly, with a wobbly, almost apocalyptic bassline. It is a raga, according to Indian tradition, that is meant to be played early in the morning. You can hear a (vocodered?) robo-voice in the beginning of the track intoning “Om Namah Shivaya” — the traditional prayer to the god Shiva. Have a listen if you don’t believe me:

Click here for Part 2 of the story.


  1. cnnr wrote:

    absolutely dumbfounded…………..

    Monday, April 5, 2010 at 9:44 am | Permalink
  2. Blake wrote:

    So how does a person acquire this album? Is it only available on vinyl? A Google search for “10 Ragas to a Disco Beat” leads one to . . . this site.

    Monday, April 5, 2010 at 10:11 am | Permalink
  3. spike wrote:

    get it from

    Monday, April 5, 2010 at 12:53 pm | Permalink
  4. Nikhil wrote:

    Great unearthing of the original LP sleeve. I was ecstatic when I found out about this a week ago, especially as it seems like the obvious sideways move that would have occurred amongst the composers working within Bollywood’s disco obesssion in the early 1980s.

    Checkout this Nazia Hassan (produced by Biddhu) track, also from 1982, which is a solid, faithful rework of Moroder/Summer’s I Feel Love:

    There’s a whole bunch of these tracks I’ve been slowly collecting – each playing with the imported disco-sound (someday, I’ll write a piece on my Hiniditalo obsession); so no surprise that disco in India when detached from the song/vocal-led form gave way to tracky house/acid – just like elsewhere.

    Monday, April 5, 2010 at 5:53 pm | Permalink
  5. jack wrote:

    all hail the Boomkat!!!!

    Monday, April 5, 2010 at 6:01 pm | Permalink
  6. Simply amazing. This predates the Israeli/acid house scene in India by about a decade but could easily have been spun at a Goan beach rave circa 1991. I can only wonder what Charanjit’s legacy would have been if he had thought to add distortion to his synths.

    Tuesday, April 6, 2010 at 8:14 am | Permalink
  7. Nick wrote:

    What scene is this Israeli acid house? I’d like to hear some of the music.

    Wednesday, July 28, 2010 at 2:56 pm | Permalink
  8. Sam wrote:

    Goa Trance, yo.

    Monday, January 3, 2011 at 5:55 pm | Permalink
  9. Ed wrote:

    great post, great album, great blog.
    great great great!

    today is full of discoveries!

    Tuesday, April 6, 2010 at 5:53 pm | Permalink
  10. dj twat wrote:

    now this is probably a hash job but it’s a great listen and would be fun on the dancefloor.
    it’s simply fun.but i’m not gonna get all cosmic about it.

    Thursday, May 6, 2010 at 4:07 pm | Permalink
  11. S Singh wrote:

    I found it on this site:

    Friday, May 7, 2010 at 11:43 am | Permalink
  12. Jai Singh wrote:

    I saw the original copy of TEN RAGAS on thesite
    Here goes the link

    Thursday, December 30, 2010 at 1:53 pm | Permalink
  13. Nimesh wrote:

    A few years too late… but if you are still looking then apart from YouTube, this is also available on Google play etc..

    Such great music… Indeed!

    Monday, November 11, 2013 at 12:20 am | Permalink

3 Trackbacks/Pingbacks

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    […] India in the early 1980s. I was inspired by Ten Ragas to a Disco Beat– which I wrote about here and here — and figured that there must be a whole hidden cache of these records, a treasure […]

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